only $8.48 to the ton of iron, and can be worked in varying proportions with the rich hematites and magnetites of Virginia and Lake Superior, of which more hereafter.
Following the Clinton measures South of Cumberland into Virginia the next point of importance is in the vicinity of Moorefield ; the small fossil veins here attain a thickness of nearly three feet, and yield over 43 per cent, of iron, and are remarkably free from Silica. Their occurrence and position is a counterpart of the ores North of Cumberland, and hence offer similar inducements for mining. Large tracts of ore overlap the tops of the mountains, leaving only a few feet of soil as cover. The outcrops of the workable fossil veins have been traced Southwest through Hardy, Pendleton and Highland Counties to the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad, and everywhere present the same natural advantages; insuring a cheap and plentiful supply of these ores for furnaces situated in Cumberland. In Morgan County, Va., and in the vicinity of the Great Cacapon river, not quite 40 miles East of Cumberland, are local deposits of hematites, yielding from 35 to 40 per cent, of iron, and containing scarcely a trace of phosphorus. The ore requires washing and can be shipped by Canal and delivered at $4.25 per ton. A Charcoal furnace has been running on the ore of one of these deposits for many years, and produces excellent iron.
The second great range of ores, important to Cumberland, is found in a course parallel with the fossil along the outcrop of the Lower Silurian Limestones forming the base of the Great North Mountain and the Shenandoah Valley. The ores are hematites and limonites, practically free from sulphur and phosphorus and occur, in an almost continuous deposit from a point twenty miles South of Winchester, Frederick County, through Shenandoah and Rockingham Counties, crossing the Chesapeake and Ohio Rail road near Staunton, Augusta County, and turning thence in a Southwestern direction into Tennessee.
The deposits are in many instances above water level, and can be mined by open cut and transported to the valley by inclines and tram-roads. An average sample from Frederick County assayed:
42.00 per cent. Metallic Iron.
.20 per cent. Phosphorus.
Allegany County Public Library
21 x 14 cms
Board of Trade of the City of Cumberland
Mines and mineral resources, Maryland, Cumberland
Cumberland, Md., 1870s