Maryland Senatorial 1
Between the years 1789 and 1913, it was the Maryland General Assembly which chose the State's United States Senators. With the passage and subsequent ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1913, the appointment or election of U.S. Senators by state legislatures was replaced by the direct election and popular vote of the people. These pages reflect a sampling of the U.S. Senators from Maryland, and their campaign buttons, again from the time-period 1896 to 2006.
George Louis Wellington (1852-1927), a Republican, was born in Cumberland, Maryland. Wellington served in the U.S. House of Representatives from Maryland's Sixth Congressional District from 1895 to 1897. He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1896, and served from 1897 through 1903. He did not seek reelection. In 1913 Wellington unsuccessfully sought election to the U.S. Senate on the Progressive Party ticket. The Wellington item portrayed here is not a button. It is a "stud", and was designed with a metal shank to be worn through a buttonhole on the lapel.
Isidor Rayner (1850-1912), a Democrat, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He served on the Maryland House of Delegates from 1878 to 1884, the State Senate from 1885 to 1886, and the U.S. House of Representatives from 1887 to 1889, and again from 1891 through 1895. He was elected to the U.S. Senate from Maryland in 1905 and served until his death in 1912.
Edwin Warfield (1848-1920), a Democrat, was born in Howard County, Maryland and served as Governor of Maryland from 1904 to1908. Prior to that he served as President of the Maryland State Senate. The button depicted on this page presents Warfield as a candidate for the U.S. Senate. I am still trying to determine the year of what was obviously an unsuccessful attempt at this office.
David John Lewis (1869-1952), a Democrat, was born in Pennsylvania but spent most of his life in Allegany County, Maryland. A coal miner and lawyer by profession, Lewis served in the Maryland State Senate from 1902 to 1906. He ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives in 1908, but was later successful in this regard and served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1911 through 1917, and again from 1931 to 1939. "Davey" Lewis was defeated in the Senatorial campaign of 1916 by Joseph I. France, a Republican. He unsuccessfully sought the Democratic Party's nomination for Senate in 1922, and again in 1938.
John W. Garrett (1872-1942), a Republican, was the grandson of John Work Garrett (1820-1884), a president of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad and for whom Garrett County was named in 1872. His grandson, John, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. He served in the U.S. Foreign Service serving in such places as Venezuela, Argentina, the Netherlands, and Luxemburg. He was also the U.S. Ambassador to Italy from 1929 to 1933. Along with his brother, Robert (1875-1961), John's donation of almost 2,000 acres of land to the State of Maryland in 1906 in Garrett County established the State's forestry and park's program. Garrett was a Delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1920 and 1924 an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican Party nomination for Senator. We are still working on the year.
(According to one of bibliography sources, it was Robert W. Garrett who ran in the Republican Primary of September 11, 1922 against the incumbent U.S. Senator, Joseph I. France. Garrett received 26,648 votes or 40.85% in his primary loss. France, who served from 1917-1923, was defeated in his re-election bid by William C. Bruce in the November 1922 General Election. Robert had also run, unsuccessfully, for the Maryland House of Delegates in 1903 and 1905 and for the U.S. House of Representatives from the Second Congressional District in 1904, 1906, and 1908. We are at this writing working to reconcile John and Robert.)
Ovington Eugene Weller (1862-1947), a Republican, was born in Reisterstown, Maryland. He served as Chairman of the Maryland State Roads Commission from 1912 to 1916, and was an unsuccessful candidate for Governor in 1915, losing to Emerson Harrington. Weller was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1920, and served from 1921 until 1927. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection losing to Millard E. Tydings.
Millard Evelyn Tydings (1890-1961), a Democrat, was born in Havre de Grace, Maryland. He served in the Maryland House of delegates from 1916 to 1921, and was also the Speaker of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1920 to 1922. Following World War I, he was elected to the Maryland State Senate, serving from 1922 to 1923, and the U.S. House of Representatives from 1923 to 1927. Millard E. Tydings was elected to the U.S. Senate from Maryland in 1926 and served from 1927 until 1951. He was defeated for reelection in the 1950 Senate campaign by the Republican, John Marshall Butler.
George Lovic Pierce Radcliffe (1877-1974), a Democrat, was born in Dorchester County, Maryland. A teacher and an attorney by profession, Radcliffe served as Maryland's Secretary of State from 1919 to 1920. He was elected to the U.S. Senate from Maryland in 1934, and served in the Senate from 1935 until 1947. Radcliffe had unsuccessfully sought his party's renomination to the Senate in 1946.
Herbert Romulus O'Conor (1896-1960), a Democrat, was born in Baltimore, Maryland and served two terms as Governor of Maryland (O'Conor for Governor portrait button displayed here) from 1939 to 1947. O'Conor was later elected to the U.S. Senate serving from 1947 to 1953. He was not a candidate for reelection in the 1952 Senatorial campaign. As we do not have an O'Conor senatorial campaign button, we used one from his gubernatorial campaign to depict his image.
John Marshall Butler (1897-1978), a Republican, was born in Baltimore, Maryland. An attorney by profession, he was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1950, and served from 1951 through 1963. One of the buttons depicted here portrays Butler with President Dwight "Ike" Eisenhower who, like Butler, was also a successful candidate for reelection in 1956. John Marshall Butler did not run for reelection in the 1962 Senatorial campaign.
Thomas D'Alesandro, Jr. (1903-1987), a Democrat, was born in Baltimore. He served as a member of the Maryland House of Delegates from 1926 until1933 and as a member of the Baltimore City Council from 1935 to 1938. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1938, D'Alesandro served in the Congress from 1939 until his resignation in 1947. It was at that time he began his service as Mayor of the City of Baltimore, an office he held until 1959 and his defeat for renomination in the Democratic primary. In 1958, D'Alesandro unsuccessfully sought election for the U.S. Senate from Maryland. Thomas D'Alesandro is also the father of Nancy Pelosi (1940- ), a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from California, and from 2007 to 2011, the Speaker of the House. We wanted to depict D'Alesandro's image and as we did not have a photo button from his senatorial campaign, we selected a button from his mayoralty campaign.
James Glenn Beall (1894-1971), a Republican, was born in Frostburg, Maryland. He served in the Maryland State Senate from 1930 through 1934, and was also Chairman of the Maryland States Road Commission from 1938 to 1939. Beall was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives serving from 1943 to 1953. He was elected to the U.S. Senate from Maryland in 1952 and served in that position from 1953 until 1965. James Glenn Beall was defeated in his bid for reelection in 1964 by the Democrat, Joseph D. Tydings.
Daniel Baugh Brewster (1923-2007), a Democrat, was born in Baltimore County, Maryland. Brewster served in the Maryland House of Delegates from 1950 through 1958, whereupon he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives serving from 1959 to 1963. Brewster successfully ran for the U.S. Senate in 1962, and served as a Senator from Maryland from 1963 to 1969. Daniel Brewster was defeated in his 1968 reelection bid by Charles M. Mathias, a Republican. Brewster received 443,667 votes, or just 39.12% of the votes cast in the 1968 General Election. In 1975 Brewster pleaded "no contest" to an earlier indictment which had been brought against him for accepting an illegal gratuity while serving in the U.S. Senate.
Photo buttons of James Glenn Beall courtesy of the J. Glenn Beall Archives, Lewis J. Ort Library, Frostburg State University.
Campaign paraphernalia, Maryland, History