Maryland Gubernatorial 1
Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. (1845-1905) was elected in 1895 as Governor of Maryland and served from 1896-1900. A Republican, he is the only person from Allegany County to have been elected to this office. During his term in office, Lowndes supported the creation of a Bureau of Immigration which had as its purpose the encouragement of immigration into the state's sparsely populated regions. The Maryland Geological Survey was established with his support, and in response to a request from President McKinley, elements of the Maryland Militia were called forth by Governor Lowndes during the Spanish-American War (1898).
Lloyd Lowndes was the owner of the Cumberland Daily News newspaper, held assorted clay and coal mining interests in western Maryland, and served on the Board of Directors of several local banks. Over twenty years prior to his election to the Governorship he had been elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, serving from 1873 to 1875. Lowndes was defeated in his re-election bid for Governor by the Democrat, John Walter Smith (1845-1925), who went on to serve from 1900 to 1904.
Along with the Lowndes ribbon depicted here is included a stud depicting Lloyd Lowndes, Jr. and the year of his gubernatorial election (1895). Studs were designed with a metal shank to be worn through a buttonhole on the lapel.
Edwin Warfield (1848-1920), a Democrat, was born at the Oakdale Plantation (farm) in Howard County and served as Governor from 1904 to 1908. Prior to that he served as President of the Maryland State Senate. It is interesting to note that Warfield had been elected in part due to his promise to pass an amendment to the Maryland Constitution that would disenfranchise any "Negro" whose grandfather had only been entitled to vote after 1869 (African-Americans did not have the right to vote in Maryland until that time and the ratification of the 15th Amendment). This was, in part, because of concern that African-American voters would be Republican. The Maryland General Assembly adopted the amendment in 1904, and it went to referendum in 1905 where it failed. Warfield had opposed the amendment by that time because he felt it ambiguous as it pertained to whites.
Along with a Prohibition candidate, Warfield defeated the Republican, Stevenson A. Williams, in the 1903 election for the office of Governor of Maryland. A button from the Stevenson A. Williams campaign is also shown here.
Arthur P. Gorman, Jr. (1873-1919) was the son of Arthur Pue Gorman (1839-1906) who represented Maryland in the United States Senate from 1881 to 1899, and again from 1903 to 1906. Gorman Jr. served in the Maryland State Senate from 1904 through 1910, and also held the office of State Senate President. Gorman was the unsuccessful Democratic candidate in the Maryland Gubernatorial election of 1911. He was defeated by the Republican, Phillips Lee Goldsborough (1865-1946) who received 106,392 popular votes, (50.71%), to Gorman's 103,395 (49.29%). Goldsborough went on to serve as Governor from 1912 to 1916.
Albert C. Ritchie (1876-1936) served four terms as Governor of Maryland beginning with his election in 1919. He took office in 1920, and served as Governor through 1935. Ritchie gained a national reputation for his opposition to the 18th (Prohibition) Amendment which made the manufacture, transport, and sale of intoxicating liquors illegal.
Among the Republican gubernatorial candidates he defeated was Harry W. Nice (1877-1941) in 1919. Nice would later defeat Ritchie to become Governor in the 1934 election.
Also included on this page, is a "Broening Booster" campaign button for Republican William F. Broening (1870-1953), who Ritchie defeated in 1930. Broening had served in the Maryland House of Delegates and was later elected Mayor of Baltimore, serving from 1919 to 1923, and again from 1927 to 1931. Albert Ritchie unsuccessfully sought the 1932 Democratic Party nomination for President. The nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, did offer him a position as his Vice-presidential running-mate. Ritchie declined.
Harry Whinna Nice (1877-1941), a Republican, defeated Albert C. Ritchie in the 1934 election and went on to serve as Governor from 1935 to 1939. At one point, during the 1936 Republican National Convention, Nice's name was actually placed into nomination for the Vice-presidency by a Republican delegate from Maryland. The effort did not proceed any further than that. Though he often stated he would not seek a second term as Governor, Nice did run for re-election in 1938 and was defeated by Herbert R. O'Conor.
Herbert R. O'Conor (1896-1960) was a Democrat and served two terms as Governor of Maryland from 1939 to 1947. Among his challengers in the 1938 primary was William S. Gordy from the Eastern Shore, Lansdale G. Sasscer, and Howard W. Jackson who served three terms as Mayor of Baltimore. In his 1942 re-election bid, O'Conor defeated the Republican, Theodore R. McKeldin (1900-1974). O'Conor was later elected to the U.S. Senate serving from 1947 to 1953.
Howard W. Jackson (1877-1960) a Democrat, served sixteen years as Mayor of Baltimore. This was between the years 1923 to 1927 and again from 1931 to 1943. In 1938 Jackson sought the Democratic nomination for Governor of Maryland. He secured almost 40% of the votes in a four-way primary race that also included Herbert O'Conor, the eventual winner with over 43% of the votes, as well as Williams S. Gordy, Jr. and Lansdale G. Sasscer. O'Conor went on to defeat the Republican, Harry W. Nice, for Governor in the 1938 general election.
William Preston Lane, Jr. (1892-1967), a Democrat, was born in Hagerstown, Maryland. Lane served as Attorney General for the State of Maryland from 1930 to 1934. As with Herbert R. O'Conor, he also defeated Theodore R. McKeldin for Governor, this being in the 1946 gubernatorial campaign. Lane went on to serve as Governor of Maryland from 1947 to 1951. It was during Governor Lane's administration that plans were laid for the first Chesapeake Bay Bridge. Opened in 1952, it is now known as the William Preston Lane, Jr. Memorial Bridge. Lane was defeated in his bid for re-election in 1950 by McKeldin.
Theodore R. McKeldin (1900-1974), a Republican, was born in Baltimore and served as Mayor of Baltimore from 1943 to 1947, and once again from 1963 to 1967. He was elected Governor of Maryland in 1950 partially due to the electorate's disapproval of the unpopular sales tax imposed by the previous Democratic administration. McKeldin was re-elected in 1954 and served through 1959. Upon leaving the Governorship, McKeldin again became the Mayor of Baltimore. Though a Republican, he supported Lyndon B. Johnson in the 1964 Presidential election. Theodore R. McKeldin went on to implement an array of anti-poverty and civil rights programs within the city.
J. Millard Tawes (1894-1979), a native of Crisfield, Maryland, had sought and failed in his attempt to win the Democratic nomination for Governor in 1946. He was, however, elected to the first of two terms in 1958, and served from 1959 to 1967 as Governor of Maryland. It was during Tawes' term of office that legislation was passed in 1963 to phase out slot machines. However, this did not take place until after he was out of office in 1968.
Tawes established a cabinet level Department of Economic Development, and also hosted a meeting of Appalachian Governors aimed toward the establishment of the Appalachian Regional Commission. This was a rural anti-poverty program envisioned by Presidents Kennedy and Johnson and affecting the three western Maryland counties.
Tawes worked to enact various civil rights legislation pertaining to public accommodations, employment, and state contracts. Upon the establishment of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources in 1969 by Governor Marvin Mandel, Tawes was appointed as its first Secretary.
Spiro T. Agnew (1918-1996)was born in Baltimore and was elected Governor of Maryland in 1966 and served until 1969. Agnew had been selected by Richard M. Nixon as his vice-presidential running-mate in 1968, and upon their election Agnew resigned from the Governorship in 1969.
Prior to his election as Governor, Agnew had served as Baltimore County Executive from 1962 to 1966. Agnew had defeated George P. Mahoney (1901-1989), a Democrat, and Hyman A. Pressman (1914-1996), the long-time Baltimore City Comptroller from 1963 to 1991 who ran as an Independent, in the 1966 gubernatorial election.
In defeating Mahoney, Agnew at the time was considered a moderate Republican. As Governor, Agnew signed into law the State's first open-housing laws and worked toward the passage of several anti-pollution laws and judicial reforms. This changed during his administration after the 1968 arrests of protesting Bowie State College students, verbal confrontations with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) during the 1967 summer racial disturbances in Cambridge, Maryland, and conflicts with black leaders in 1968 during the riots in Baltimore following the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. All this brought Agnew national attention and led to his election as Richard Nixon's Vice-president in 1968.
Spiro T. Agnew was the first Marylander to serve in the office of Vice-President. He later became the first Vice-president to resign from that office in 1973 because of criminal allegations stemming from his years as Baltimore County Executive.
Note: Several of the older buttons depicted here were manufactured in Baltimore. These include the Baltimore Badge and Novelty Company (Warfield), the Hyatt Manufacturing Company (Gorman, Ritchie and Jackson) and the Lucke Badge and Button Company (Nice and O'Conor).
Campaign paraphernalia, Maryland, History