Third Party Candidates and Primary Hopefuls
Margaret Chase Smith (1897-1995), a Republican, represented the state of Maine in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1940 to 1949, and went on to serve in the U.S. Senate from 1949 to 1973. Though Smith was unsuccessful in her 1964 bid for the Republican nomination for President, she was the first woman to have her named placed in nomination by a major political party for the office of President. Margaret Chase Smith was also the longest serving woman Senator in history until 2011 when Maryland Senator Barbara Mikulski was sworn in for a fifth term.
Jill Stein, a Massachusetts physician, began her campaign for the Green Party presidential nomination in October 2011. Prior to that time she had unsuccessfully run for Governor of Massachusetts in 2002 and 2010, for State Representative in 2004, and as Secretary of the Massachusetts Commonwealth in 2006. In 2005 she was elected Town of Lexington Town Meeting Representative, and was re-elected to that office in 2008. Stein was officially nominated as the Green Party's 2012 presidential candidate on July 14, 2012. Among the other nominees she defeated was Roseanne Barr. The Green Party convention was held in Baltimore, Maryland, and this was the first national political convention to be held in Baltimore since 1912 when Woodrow Wilson was nominated by the Democratic Party. The Jill Stein button depicted on this page came from the 2012 convention held in Baltimore. Cheri Honkala, an advocate for the poor and homeless, was nominated as Stein's 2012 vice-presidential running-mate. Stein's campaign slogan for 2012 - "A Green New Deal for America". After a decade of organizing on the state and local level, the Green Party was officially founded in 2001 as a national political party.
Roseanne Barr, an actress, comedian, and activist, came in second in her unsuccessful bid for the Green Party's nomination for President in 2012. Barr drew attention to the race, and along with Stein, spoke to several public policy issues pertaining to health, the environment, foreign affairs, and the economy. Her campaign slogan was, "Vote for me, I'll fix this s--t!, Barr 2012". The Roseanne Barr button depicted on this page came from the 2012 Green Party convention which was held in Baltimore, July 12-15, 2012.
James Harris is a long-time member of the Socialist Workers Party (SWP) and an advocate for the working class. In addition to being the SWP's 2012 presidential candidate, he was also the Socialist Workers candidate for President in both 1996 and 2000. During the Vietnam era, Harris served on the national staff of the Student Mobilization Committee Against the War in Vietnam. Maura DeLuca, the Socialist Workers Party candidate for Vice-President in 2012, is a strong supporter of immigrant, workers, and women's rights.
Gus Hall (1910-2000) was a Communist Party USA (CPUSA) candidate who ran in four Presidential elections, 1972, 1976, 1980, and 1984. His Vice-presidential running-mate in the 1972 and 1976 campaigns was Jarvis Tyner and in 1980 and 1984 it was Angela Davis. "Vote Communist: Peace - Jobs - Justice"
George Wallace (1919-1998) entered his fourth campaign (1964, 1968, 1972, 1976) for the presidency in November 1975. This was after he had been shot by a would-be assassin during the 1972 campaign. This left him partially paralyzed for the remainder of his life. Wallace carried only three states during the primaries before dropping out in June 1976. He then endorsed Jimmy Carter, who went on to win the Democratic nomination and defeat Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential election.
Hubert Horatio Humphrey (1911-1978), a Democrat, served as Mayor of Minneapolis, Minnesota from 1945 to 1949. He twice served in the United States Senate, from 1949 to 1964, and again from 1971 through 1978. Humphrey also served as Vice-President of the United States, serving in that capacity under President Lyndon B. Johnson from January 1965 to January 1969. As the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in 1968, he would lose to Richard M. Nixon in the general election. The button depicted on this page is from 1960, when Humphrey competed, and lost, against fellow Senator John F. Kennedy for the Democratic nomination. Kennedy went on to defeat Richard Nixon in the general election.
Gary Earl Johnson was elected Governor of New Mexico in 1994 and served in that capacity from 1995 to 2003. A fiscal conservative who also believed in low taxes, Johnson was at that time a member of the Republican Party. During his second term as Governor Johnson also campaigned for the decriminalization of marijuana. Gary Johnson announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination for President in April 2011. Unable to gain significant support or standing, he withdrew his candidacy for the Republican nomination and later that year joined and sought the Presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party. Gary Johnson won the Libertarian Party nomination for President in May 2012. As depicted on the button above, "Live Free" is the slogan of his campaign. Johnson's running-mate for Vice-President is James P. Gray. The Libertarian Party was established in 1971 and is considered to be the third largest political party in the United States. Minimal governmental regulation, strong civil liberties, drug law liberalization, the avoidance of foreign intervention, gay rights, free trade, and a separation of church and state are generally speaking among the policies the Libertarian Party supports.
Dennis J. Kucinich(1946-), a Democrat, was elected Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio in 1977 and served in that capacity from 1978 until 1979. At thirty-one years of age he was the youngest mayor of a major American city and was nicknamed the "boy mayor of Cleveland." He lost his re-election bid in 1979. An interesting footnote to the election is that a hit-man from Maryland was hired to shoot Kucinich during the Cleveland Columbus Day Parade, but the scheme failed when Kucinich took sick and was hospitalized. He was later elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1996, and has served in the House from 1997 to the present. Dennis Kucinich unsuccessfully campaigned for the Democratic nomination for President in both 2004 and 2008. In the 2004 he failed to win any states, and eventually supported Senator John Kerry for the nomination. Kerry went on to lose to George W. Bush in the general election. Kucinich announced his candidacy for the 2008 nomination in December 2006. Considered a progressive candidate, Kucinich dropped his bid for the nomination in January 2008. He would eventually endorse Senator Barack Obama who would go on to defeat Senator John McCain in the general election. "Peace Through Strength", as portrayed on the button depicted on this page, was the Kucinich mantra during his 2008 primary campaign.
Alexander M. Haig, Jr. (1924-2010), Republican, was a United States Army general who during his career served as the Supreme Allied Commander Europe commanding all American and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) forces in Europe from 1974 to 1979. Haig would serve both Presidents Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford as White House Chief of Staff from 1973 to 1974, and would later be appointed Secretary of State under President Ronald Reagan from 1981 to 1982. Alexander Haig sought the Republican Party's presidential nomination in 1988. After finishing near the bottom or in last place in most polls Haig would eventually drop out of the race. George H.W. Bush would go on to win the Republican nomination defeating the Democrat, Michael Dukakis, in the general election.
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