Third Party Candidates and Primary Hopefuls
Barry Commoner (1917-2012) founded the Citizens Party in 1980. Commoner was an ecologist and one of the founders of the modern environmental movement. The Citizens Party provided a venue for his environmental message. Commoner ran for President in the 1980 election. He received 233,052 votes, or approximately 0.27% of the total number cast. His running mate for Vice-President was LaDonna Harris, the wife of former Senator Fred Harris of Oklahoma, and who is highlighted elsewhere in this section.
William Weld, a Republican, served as Governor of Massachusetts from 1991 to 1997. He ran for the U.S. Senate in 1996, but lost to the Democratic candidate, John Kerry. Prior to that time there had been speculation he would seek the Republication nomination for President in 1996. However, in February 1996 he announced that he would not run and that seeking that office would hamper his ability to serve as an effective Governor and impact upon the attention he wanted to devote to his children.
When initially written in October 2013 there was speculation that the following might be considering a run for the 2016 Presidential election:
Christopher "Chris" Christie was elected Governor of New Jersey in 2009, and began serving in that office in January 2010. Christie considered seeking the 2012 Republican nomination, but in October 2011 announced that he would not run. He successfully ran for re-election as Governor in 2014, and in June 2015 announced his candidacy for the 2016 Republican nomination for President.
Marco Rubio, a Republican, served in the Florida House of Representatives from 2000 to 2009, and served as Speaker of the Florida House of Representatives from 2007 to 2009. Rubio was elected to the U.S. Senate in November 2010, and began his term of office in January 2011. Rubio announced his candidacy for the 2016 Republican nomination in April 2015.
Martin J. O'Malley, a Democrat, was elected to the Baltimore City Council in 1990 and served on the City Council until his election as Mayor of Baltimore in 1998. Martin O'Malley was elected Governor of Maryland in the 2006 gubernatorial election and re-elected to that office in 2010. Between the years 2011-2013 he served as Chair of the Democratic Governors Association. O'Malley announced his candidacy for the 2016 Democratic nomination in May 2015. O'Malley suspended his campaign on February 1, 2016.
Hillary Rodham Clinton was elected to the U.S. Senate from New York in 2000 and served as Senator from 2001 to 2009. She made an unsuccessful bid for the Democratic Party's nomination for President in 2008. In 2009 Clinton was appointed by President Barack Obama to serve as United States Secretary of State and held that position until 2013. She is the wife of Bill Clinton, who was elected President of the United States in 1982 and held that office from 1983 to 1992. Clinton announced her candidacy for the 2016 Democratic nomination in April 2015.
Randal "Rand" Paul, a Republican, was elected to the U.S. Senate from Kentucky in 2010, and has served as a Senator since January 2011. Rand Paul is the son of former Texas U.S. Representative and presidential candidate Ron Paul, who is highlighted elsewhere in this section. Randal Paul is a supporter of term limits, a balanced budget, and the Tea Party. Paul announced his candidacy for the 2016 Republican nomination in April 2015.
Andrew Mark Cuomo, a Democrat, served as U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) from 1997 to 2001. He later served as New York State Attorney General from 2007 to 2010. Cuomo was elected Governor of New York in 2010 and began his term of office in January 2011. He is the son of Mario Cuomo (1932-2015), who also held the office of Governor of New York from 1983 to 1994.
Joseph R. Biden, a Democrat, was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1972. He unsuccessfully sought the Democratic nomination for President in 1988 and 2008. Biden was selected by Barack Obama to serve as his Vice-Presidential running mate in both of their successful 2008 and 2012 campaigns.
Benjamin "Ben" Carson, Sr. is a retired neurosurgeon and former director of pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Maryland. He is known for his pioneering work on the successful separation of conjoined twins joined at the head. On February 7, 2013 Dr. Carson spoke at the National Prayer Breakfast where he presented his views on various social and fiscal issues, as well as to how they relate to the federal government. These were felt to be conservative in nature and although at that time he had given no indication of seeking political office, Dr. Carson had been mentioned as a possible candidate for the 2016 presidential election. He is the author of four bestselling books, and in July 2013 began writing an opinion column for the Washington Times Carson announced his candidacy for the 2016 Republican nomination in May 2015.
As of May 5, 2016 all the Republican candidates, except for Donald Trump, had dropped out or suspended their campaigns.
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